Biblioteca Escolar “ROSARIO DE ACUÑA”

Proyecto Bibliotecas Escolares _ I.E.S. Rosario de Acuña. Gijón

Artículos de Abril, 2008

Las Hermanas Brönte

Publicado por rosarioa.biblioteca el 7 Abril 2008

 The Brontë Sisters

The Brontë Sisters, Charlotte (1816-1855), Emily (1818-1848) and Anne (1820-1849) were English novelists whose works transcended the Victorian time and became classic.

They lived in the English society of the 19th century, in which the occupations of women were rather limited. This was the main problem of these anxious young sisters. They lived in a time that did not understand them, who were carried away by literature. Women did not have place in the intellectual world.

They were born in Yorkshire. Their father, Patrick Brönte, of Irish origin, was the rector of Haworth, a village placed in Yorkshire’s high plateaus. Since then the family felt tied to this place. When their mother died in 1824, Charlotte and Emily were sent by her older sisters, Maria and Elizabeth, to Clergy Daughters’s college, in Cowan Bridge. Maria and Elizabeth returned ill to Haworth and they died of tuberculosis in 1825. For this reason and for the terrible conditions of the college the family took Charlotte and Emily away from the boarding school. Charlotte Brönte was inspired by this college to describe the infamous Lowood College that appears in her novel Jane Eyre.

Charlotte Brontë (1816-1855)

Charlotte Brontë, was born in Thornton, in 1816, Her sisters Emily and Anne were also writers. She published under the pseudonym of Currer Bell. She worked as a teacher from 1835 and founded a school with her sisters Emily and Anne. She convinced them to publish together a poemario, which appeared in 1846 under their respective pseudonyms. Her first novel, “The Teacher”, was published after her death in 1857. “Jane Eyre” (1847) reached a great success and made her famous as a writer. She published two more novels, “Shirley” (1849) and “Villete” (1852), Lucy Snowe’s story. A fragment of “Emma” appeared after her death in 1860. She died in Haworth in 1855, at the age of 38.

Emily Brontë (1818-1848)

Emily Brontë was born in Thornton in 1818. She published under the pseudonym of Ellis Bell. She was the most sensitive and original of the three Brontë sisters. She wrote the most part of her poems in 1846 and she is considered one of best poets of the 19th century, and continues being admired by her originality, her poetry and her imaginative personal references. Her novel “Wuthering Heights” (1847), tells the story of a passionate love. It is considered one of the masterpieces of the narrative in English language. She died of tuberculosis in December 19th, 1848 in Haworth.

Anne Brontë (1820-1849)

Anne Brontë was born in 1820 in Thornton. She has always been considered the sister with the least talent of the three, but looking at their work, the talent of the sisters was similar. She wrote the poem “Domestic Peace” in Harword, in 1846. She published under the pseudonym of Acton Bell. She worked as a governess and she used that experience in her novel “Agnes Grey” (1847). Her second and last novel, “The lady of Wildfell Hall” was published in 1848. She died in 1849 at the age of 29.

 

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Jane Austen

Publicado por rosarioa.biblioteca el 7 Abril 2008

“Jane Austen was an English novelist whose books, set amongst the English middle and upper classes, are notable for their wit, social observation and insights into the lives of early 19th century women.”

Jane Austen was born in December 16th, 1775, in Hampshire, England. Her father, George Austen, worked as the rector of the Anglican parishes at Steventon. Her mother, Cassandra, was a member of the prominent Leigh family. She had six sisters but Cassandra was Austen’s closest friend and confidante throughout her life.

Austen acquired most part of her education by reading books, guided by her father and her brothers James and Henry.

Between 1782 and 1784, the Austen family performed plays in Steventon’s parsonage.

During the period between 1793 and 1795, Austen wrote Lady Susan, a short epistolary novel, usually described as her most ambitious and sophisticated early work. She also began to write the first versions of the novels that then would be published by the titles of Sense and Sensibility, Pride and Prejudice and Northanger’s Abbey.

After finishing Lady Susan, Austen attempted her first full-length novel, Elinor and Marianne. Austen fell in love at the age of twenty one. Tom Lefroy, a nephew of her neighbours, visited Steventon from December 1795 to January 1796. He had just finished a university degree and was moving to London to train as a barrister. Their feelings for each other were strong and visible to their friends and neighbours. The Lefroy family intervened and sent him away at the end of January. If Tom Lefroy later visited Hampshire, he was carefully kept away from the Austens, and Jane Austen never saw him again.

Neither Jane nor Cassandra Austen ever got married. Her father died in 1805

Jane’s brother Henry helped her negotiate with a publisher and her first novel, Sense and Sensibility, appeared in 1811. Her next novel Pride and Prejudice, which she described as her “own darling child” received highly favourable reviews. Mansfield Park was published in 1814, then Emma, in 1816. Emma was dedicated to the Prince Regent, an admirer of her work. All Jane Austen’s novels were published anonymously.

In 1816, Jane began to suffer from ill-health, probably due to Addison’s disease. She travelled to Winchester to receive treatment, and died there on 18th July, 1817. Two more novels, Persuasion and Northanger Abbey were published posthumously and a final novel was left incomplete.

                           Jane Austen

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Sufragismo en Gran Bretaña

Publicado por rosarioa.biblioteca el 7 Abril 2008

 SUFRAGISMO EN GRAN BRETAÑA

En Europa, el movimiento sufragista más potente y radical fue el inglés. Surgió en 1951, sólo tres años después de la Declaración de Séneca Falls, cuando un grupo de mujeres inglesas celebraron en Sheffield un acto público en el que pidieron el voto para la mujer. Decididas a seguir procedimientos democráticos en la consecución de sus objetivos buscaron el apoyo de los parlamentarios. El día 13 de febrero de 1861, el conde de Carlisle presentó su petición en la Cámara de los Lores.
            Posteriormente las sufragistas inglesas consiguieron tener como aliado a John Stuart, que se casó con una feminista, Harriet Hardy Taylor, y en 1869 escribió un libro que se hizo famoso, “La Sumisión de las Mujeres”. Stuart Mili presentó a la Cámara de los Comunes en 1866 la primera petición oficial del Comité por el Sufragio Femenino. Pero el verdadero paladín de las mujeres en la Cámara Baja inglesa fue Jacob Bright, que incansablemente, una y otra vez, insistía en presentar propuestas para obtener el derecho político de las mujeres. En 1867 Jacob Brigt profetizó: “Si los mítines carecen de efecto, si la expresión precisa y casi universal de la opinión no tiene influencia ni en la Administración ni en el Parlamento, inevitablemente las mujeres buscarán otros sistemas para asegurarse estos derechos que les son constantemente rehusados”.
            Sin embargo, las sufragistas inglesas siguieron todavía casi cuarenta años más defendiendo la causa feminista por medios legales. En 1903, cansadas de no ser tomadas en cuenta, cambiaron de estrategia y pasaron a la lucha directa. La táctica que adoptaron fue interrumpir los discursos de los ministros y presentarse en todas las reuniones del partido liberal para plantear sus demandas. La policía las expulsaba de los actos y les imponía multas que no pagaban, tras lo cual iban a la cárcel. Allí eran consideradas como presas comunes y no políticas como ellas hubieran deseado. Para atraer la atención pública sobre su situación recurrieron a la huelga de hambre; Gladstone, que era entonces primer ministro, ordenó que las alimentaran por la fuerza, pero las feministas no desistieron, poniendo en práctica lo que una de ellas había escrito: «Para todas las conquistas en el campo de la libertad muchos hombres y mujeres han debido padecer. Esta regla es también válida para nuestro caso».
            Las feministas y la policía inglesa entraron en una espiral de violencia. En julio de 1903, lady Pankhurst, presidenta de la National Unión of Women Suffrage, fue condenada a tres años de trabajos forzados pero las sufragistas lograron su evasión. El presidente Wilson la invitó a los EE.UU. Se había convertido en una figura casi legendaria, pero eso no la libró de volver a ser encarcelada en cuanto regresó a Inglaterra.

SUFFRAGISM IN GREAT BRITAIN

 The English Woman Suffrage Movement was the most powerful and radical In Europe. It emerged in 1951, only three years after the Seneca Falls Declaration, when a group of English women held a public act in Sheffield, in which they asked for the vote for women. Determined to follow democratic procedures in achieving their goals they sought the support of the Members of Parliament. On February 13th, 1861, the Earl of Carlisle submitted their petition to the House of Lords.

  Later the English suffragists found an ally in John Stuart, who married a feminist called Harriet Hardy Taylor. In 1869 he wrote a book titled “The Submission of Women “, which became rather famous. Stuart Mili presented the first official request by the Committee of the Woman Suffrage to the House of Commons in 1866. But the best supporter of women in the English House of Commons was Jacob Bright, who insisted on requesting political rights for women. In 1867 Jacob Bright prophesied: “If the meetings have no effect, if the precise and almost universal expression of opinion has no influence either on the Administration or on Parliament, women will inevitably seek other ways to ensure them the rights they are constantly denied”.

However, the English suffragists kept supporting the feminist cause by legal means for almost forty years. In 1903, tired of not being taken into account, they changed their strategy and took to fighting. The tactics they adopted were interrupting speeches given by Ministers and stating their claims at all the meetings of the Liberal Party. The police took them away and they did not pay the fines imposed, after which they were sent to jail. They were considered as common and not as political prisoners as they expected. To attract public attention on their situation they started a hunger strike; Gladstone, who was the Prime Minister at the time, ordered them to be fed by force, but the feminists put into practice what one of them had written: “to all achievements in the field of freedom many men and women have had to endure. This rule is also valid for our fight”. The feminists and the English police entered turmoil of violence. In July, 1903, Lady Pankhurst, the president of the National Union of Women Suffrage, was condemned to three years hard labour but managed to escape with the help of the suffragists. President Wilson invited her to the USA. She had become an almost legendary figure, but that did not prevent her from being imprisoned as soon as she returned to England.

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Wirginia Woolf

Publicado por rosarioa.biblioteca el 7 Abril 2008

 

     Adeline Virginia Stephen was born on 25th January, 1882. She was the daughter of Sir Leslie Stephen and of Julia Jackson Duckworth, who was a member of a family of publishers. Her father was a distinguished critic and historian who founded the Dictionary of National Biography. Virginia grew in an environment frequented by writers, artists and intellectuals. She had three brothers, Toby, Vanessa and Bunion, who affectionately called her, “the goat “. She also had a step-brother called George Duckworth, who sexually abused her, causing her diverse nervous breakdowns. Her father died in 1904 and she tried to commit suicide by ingesting sleeping pills. Then she moved to a neighbourhood in London called Bloomsbury with her sister Vanessa and her two brothers. Bloomsbury became a meeting place for former university friends of her older brother. They were intellectuals and they would be known as the Bloomsbury group.

      In 1912, when she was thirty years old, she got married to an economist called Leonard Woolf, who was also a member of the Bloomsbury group. He founded the famous Hogarth Press, which published the work of Virginia and other relevant writers in 1917.

    Among her best novels are: “The Voyage Out” ” A Room of One’s Own”, “To the Lighthouse”, “Mrs. Dalloway”, “The Waves”, “Orlando” …

      On 28th March, 1941, in the morning, when she was 59 years old, Woolf drowned herself by weighing her pockets with stones and walking into the river Ouse.

Written by Noel Flórez, Jennifer Casarreal y Ana Junquera

Texto en español

      Adeline Virginia Stephen nació el día 25 de enero de 1882, hija de sir Leslie Stephen, distinguido crítico e historiador que fundó el Diccionario Nacional de Biografías, y de Julia Jackson Duckworth, miembro de una familia de escritores, Virginia creció en un ambiente frecuentado por literatos, artistas e intelectuales. Tenía tres hermanos, Toby, Vanessa y Adrián, que la llamaban afectuosamente, “la cabra”, y un hermanastro llamado George Duckworth, quien abusaría sexualmente de ella provocándole diversas crisis nerviosas. Tras la muerte por cáncer de su padre, en 1904, y un intento de suicidio por ingestión de somníferos, se estableció con su hermana Vanessa y sus dos hermanos en el barrio londinense de Bloomsbury que se convirtió en centro de reunión de antiguos compañeros universitarios de su hermano mayor, entre los que figuraban intelectuales y que sería conocido como el grupo o círculo de Bloomsbury.      En 1912, cuando tenía treinta años, se casó con Leonard Woolf economista y miembro también del grupo de Bloomsbury, con quien fundó en 1917 la célebre editorial Hogarth Press, que editó la obra de la propia Virginia y la de otros relevantes escritores.      Entre sus mejores obras están incluídas: Fin de viaje, Una Habitación Propia, El faro, La señora Dalloway, Las Olas, Orlando…     El día 28 de marzo de 1941, por la mañana, a los cincuenta y nueve años de edad, la escritora Virginia Woolf se ahogó llenando sus bolsillos de piedras y adentrándose en el río Ouse. 

 

 

 

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