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Artículos de 'Mujeres en la literatura'

Las Hermanas Brönte

Publicado por rosarioa.biblioteca el 7 Abril 2008

 The Brontë Sisters

The Brontë Sisters, Charlotte (1816-1855), Emily (1818-1848) and Anne (1820-1849) were English novelists whose works transcended the Victorian time and became classic.

They lived in the English society of the 19th century, in which the occupations of women were rather limited. This was the main problem of these anxious young sisters. They lived in a time that did not understand them, who were carried away by literature. Women did not have place in the intellectual world.

They were born in Yorkshire. Their father, Patrick Brönte, of Irish origin, was the rector of Haworth, a village placed in Yorkshire’s high plateaus. Since then the family felt tied to this place. When their mother died in 1824, Charlotte and Emily were sent by her older sisters, Maria and Elizabeth, to Clergy Daughters’s college, in Cowan Bridge. Maria and Elizabeth returned ill to Haworth and they died of tuberculosis in 1825. For this reason and for the terrible conditions of the college the family took Charlotte and Emily away from the boarding school. Charlotte Brönte was inspired by this college to describe the infamous Lowood College that appears in her novel Jane Eyre.

Charlotte Brontë (1816-1855)

Charlotte Brontë, was born in Thornton, in 1816, Her sisters Emily and Anne were also writers. She published under the pseudonym of Currer Bell. She worked as a teacher from 1835 and founded a school with her sisters Emily and Anne. She convinced them to publish together a poemario, which appeared in 1846 under their respective pseudonyms. Her first novel, “The Teacher”, was published after her death in 1857. “Jane Eyre” (1847) reached a great success and made her famous as a writer. She published two more novels, “Shirley” (1849) and “Villete” (1852), Lucy Snowe’s story. A fragment of “Emma” appeared after her death in 1860. She died in Haworth in 1855, at the age of 38.

Emily Brontë (1818-1848)

Emily Brontë was born in Thornton in 1818. She published under the pseudonym of Ellis Bell. She was the most sensitive and original of the three Brontë sisters. She wrote the most part of her poems in 1846 and she is considered one of best poets of the 19th century, and continues being admired by her originality, her poetry and her imaginative personal references. Her novel “Wuthering Heights” (1847), tells the story of a passionate love. It is considered one of the masterpieces of the narrative in English language. She died of tuberculosis in December 19th, 1848 in Haworth.

Anne Brontë (1820-1849)

Anne Brontë was born in 1820 in Thornton. She has always been considered the sister with the least talent of the three, but looking at their work, the talent of the sisters was similar. She wrote the poem “Domestic Peace” in Harword, in 1846. She published under the pseudonym of Acton Bell. She worked as a governess and she used that experience in her novel “Agnes Grey” (1847). Her second and last novel, “The lady of Wildfell Hall” was published in 1848. She died in 1849 at the age of 29.


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Jane Austen

Publicado por rosarioa.biblioteca el 7 Abril 2008

“Jane Austen was an English novelist whose books, set amongst the English middle and upper classes, are notable for their wit, social observation and insights into the lives of early 19th century women.”

Jane Austen was born in December 16th, 1775, in Hampshire, England. Her father, George Austen, worked as the rector of the Anglican parishes at Steventon. Her mother, Cassandra, was a member of the prominent Leigh family. She had six sisters but Cassandra was Austen’s closest friend and confidante throughout her life.

Austen acquired most part of her education by reading books, guided by her father and her brothers James and Henry.

Between 1782 and 1784, the Austen family performed plays in Steventon’s parsonage.

During the period between 1793 and 1795, Austen wrote Lady Susan, a short epistolary novel, usually described as her most ambitious and sophisticated early work. She also began to write the first versions of the novels that then would be published by the titles of Sense and Sensibility, Pride and Prejudice and Northanger’s Abbey.

After finishing Lady Susan, Austen attempted her first full-length novel, Elinor and Marianne. Austen fell in love at the age of twenty one. Tom Lefroy, a nephew of her neighbours, visited Steventon from December 1795 to January 1796. He had just finished a university degree and was moving to London to train as a barrister. Their feelings for each other were strong and visible to their friends and neighbours. The Lefroy family intervened and sent him away at the end of January. If Tom Lefroy later visited Hampshire, he was carefully kept away from the Austens, and Jane Austen never saw him again.

Neither Jane nor Cassandra Austen ever got married. Her father died in 1805

Jane’s brother Henry helped her negotiate with a publisher and her first novel, Sense and Sensibility, appeared in 1811. Her next novel Pride and Prejudice, which she described as her “own darling child” received highly favourable reviews. Mansfield Park was published in 1814, then Emma, in 1816. Emma was dedicated to the Prince Regent, an admirer of her work. All Jane Austen’s novels were published anonymously.

In 1816, Jane began to suffer from ill-health, probably due to Addison’s disease. She travelled to Winchester to receive treatment, and died there on 18th July, 1817. Two more novels, Persuasion and Northanger Abbey were published posthumously and a final novel was left incomplete.

                           Jane Austen

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Wirginia Woolf

Publicado por rosarioa.biblioteca el 7 Abril 2008


     Adeline Virginia Stephen was born on 25th January, 1882. She was the daughter of Sir Leslie Stephen and of Julia Jackson Duckworth, who was a member of a family of publishers. Her father was a distinguished critic and historian who founded the Dictionary of National Biography. Virginia grew in an environment frequented by writers, artists and intellectuals. She had three brothers, Toby, Vanessa and Bunion, who affectionately called her, “the goat “. She also had a step-brother called George Duckworth, who sexually abused her, causing her diverse nervous breakdowns. Her father died in 1904 and she tried to commit suicide by ingesting sleeping pills. Then she moved to a neighbourhood in London called Bloomsbury with her sister Vanessa and her two brothers. Bloomsbury became a meeting place for former university friends of her older brother. They were intellectuals and they would be known as the Bloomsbury group.

      In 1912, when she was thirty years old, she got married to an economist called Leonard Woolf, who was also a member of the Bloomsbury group. He founded the famous Hogarth Press, which published the work of Virginia and other relevant writers in 1917.

    Among her best novels are: “The Voyage Out” ” A Room of One’s Own”, “To the Lighthouse”, “Mrs. Dalloway”, “The Waves”, “Orlando” …

      On 28th March, 1941, in the morning, when she was 59 years old, Woolf drowned herself by weighing her pockets with stones and walking into the river Ouse.

Written by Noel Flórez, Jennifer Casarreal y Ana Junquera

Texto en español

      Adeline Virginia Stephen nació el día 25 de enero de 1882, hija de sir Leslie Stephen, distinguido crítico e historiador que fundó el Diccionario Nacional de Biografías, y de Julia Jackson Duckworth, miembro de una familia de escritores, Virginia creció en un ambiente frecuentado por literatos, artistas e intelectuales. Tenía tres hermanos, Toby, Vanessa y Adrián, que la llamaban afectuosamente, “la cabra”, y un hermanastro llamado George Duckworth, quien abusaría sexualmente de ella provocándole diversas crisis nerviosas. Tras la muerte por cáncer de su padre, en 1904, y un intento de suicidio por ingestión de somníferos, se estableció con su hermana Vanessa y sus dos hermanos en el barrio londinense de Bloomsbury que se convirtió en centro de reunión de antiguos compañeros universitarios de su hermano mayor, entre los que figuraban intelectuales y que sería conocido como el grupo o círculo de Bloomsbury.      En 1912, cuando tenía treinta años, se casó con Leonard Woolf economista y miembro también del grupo de Bloomsbury, con quien fundó en 1917 la célebre editorial Hogarth Press, que editó la obra de la propia Virginia y la de otros relevantes escritores.      Entre sus mejores obras están incluídas: Fin de viaje, Una Habitación Propia, El faro, La señora Dalloway, Las Olas, Orlando…     El día 28 de marzo de 1941, por la mañana, a los cincuenta y nueve años de edad, la escritora Virginia Woolf se ahogó llenando sus bolsillos de piedras y adentrándose en el río Ouse. 




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Rosario de Acuña

Publicado por rosarioa.biblioteca el 13 Enero 2008

Rosario de Acuña y Villanueva nace en Madrid el primero de noviembre de 1850 en el seno de una familia de origen aristocrático. Su madre, María de los Dolores Villanueva y Elices es, según parece, natural de Yebra, provincia de Guadalajara, aunque de familia originaria del reino de León, según  confirma la escritora cuando nos cuenta que de sus cuatro ramas originarias “de una soy descendiente de maragatos de León”. Felipe de Acuña y Solís, su padre,  es miembro de la rama del linaje de los Acuña que se asienta desde siglos atrás en tierras jiennenses. 

La educación de la escritora es deudora del empeño que  su padre puso en tal menester y de los viajes realizados por diversos lugares de España y otros países europeos. A causa de una enfermedad en la vista que padeció durante su infancia y juventud (”viví ciega, con cortos intervalos de luz, más de 20 -desde los 3 a los 25-)” no pudo asistir al colegio de forma continuada. No obstante, su padre le leía obras de Historia de España y de Historia Universal que ella posteriormente analizaba. 

Su afición a la escritura se manifestó a edad muy temprana. Cuando contaba veinticinco años de edad estrenó su primera obra teatral: Rienzi, el Tribuno. Ocurrió tal evento el 12 de enero de 1876  en el Teatro Circo de Madrid, ante la sorpresa de un público que desconocía la autoría de la obra. Las alabanzas  recibidas animaron a la escritora a continuar con su actividad creativa. A esta primera obra dramática seguirán otras que acrecentarán su prestigio como escritora. Este año de 1876 será también el de la publicación de una colección de poemas reunidos bajo el título Ecos del alma.

En la década de los ochenta comienza su colaboración con la revista de ideología librepensadora “Las Dominicales del Librepensamiento”. También envía algún artículo al periódico “La Humanidad”, editado por   una logia masónica   de Alicante. Tiempo después, los responsables de la misma  invitan a la escritora  a pronunciar unas conferencias en la ciudad. En el mes de febrero de 1886, con motivo de su estancia en la ciudad alicantina, ingresa en la  Logia Alona como aprendiz de masona,  tomando el nombre simbólico de Hipatía

Tras el fallecimiento de su madre se traslada a Roma con su pariente el embajador Benavides. Su estancia en Italia le permite conocer de primera mano la riqueza artística del país. Vuelve a España a fines del  XIX para dedicarse a la literatura y a la defensa pública de sus ideas a través de conferencias y colaboraciones en la prensa.  Sus artículos aparecen con cierta frecuencia en diversos diarios, especialmente en “El País”. Sus escritos reflejan su gran espíritu de lucha frente a la reacción y el clericalismo. 

En su testamento proclama su fe “en el Dios del Universo” con la misma intensidad que su radical separación de la Iglesia Católica (”y de todas las demás sectas religiosas”). 

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