Project report

Hello, we’re finishing our projects in the workshop and it’s time to start thinking about how to present the final work on a document.
In the following link you will find the guide for making the project report and some useful models such as: budget, process sheet, etc.

Technology department website.

You’ll also find the script to present the project in public, in this case to your classmates.
Good luck!


Hello, students.

In the following link you can download your notes about metals. You should print them.



In this document you can find notes basics of magnetism.

Magnetism 3º ESO


Electricity in the environment.

For most of us, life would be imposible without electricity.

Electrons are a fundamental element in electric power, the electrons movement produces the electric energy. It can be expressed in some different forms: heat, light, movement, sound and information.

The generation of electric power produces more pollution than any other industry, it’s responsable for the 63% of sulfur emissions, that causes the acid rain, 22% of NOx emissions, that is the responsable of the urban somg, 39% of carbon emissions, that contribute in the global climate change, 33% of mercury emissions, that produces several health risks. These emissions have really several consecuencies in the landscape, in the water and in the air.

Electricity and security

Electricity is an energy vector which is more and more used because of its convenience.As a consequence, the electricity demand increases faster than the total primary demand.One of the drawbacks of electricity is that it is not possible to store it in big quantities.The only way to do that on large scale is for the moment to pump water in the reservoir of a hydroelectric plant. Another way, much less used, is to store compressed air in underground cavities. Therefore, as far as electricity is concerned, the demand should be,Apart from a regular increase of electricity consumption as expected in a scenario“business as usual”, new uses of electricity can appear. Indeed, if one wants to decrease our CO2 greenhouse gas emissions and to decrease our dependence with respect to oil, we need to use energy differently. We should, in particular, produce more heat or cold using alternatives technologies. Heat pumps are one of them. It allows producing 3-4 kWh of heat or cold from air, water or ground but needs 1 kWh of electricity to do that. A large development of heat pumps would require additional electricity means of production. As regards transport, one can think that, in the medium term, plug in hybrid vehicles will develop. This would also require additional electricity. Second generation biofuels, in which external energy is used in the process and extra hydrogen, produced by electrolysis, is added for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, would also require more electricity. However, in the end, less CO2 will be emitted and our dependence upon oil will decrease. at each time, equal to the production. This means that there is clearly a problem with high power intermittent energy sources, like wind energy, since when the consumer wants electricity there is not necessary wind to produce it and vice versa.that energy is available. It is also important to favour exchange of electricity between European countries. The existing grid is still limiting possible exchanges. It is necessary to reinforced it and develop new connections. This goes in the path of a better solidarity between countries and increases the security of supply. Problems connected to the liberalization market may give rise to new problems, as it has been recently illustrated by the California crisis. Because it cannot be stored easily, electricity is not an ordinary good.A complete liberalization might weaken the security of supply. In particular which company will provide electricity at certain hours when the demand is small and the price very low?One way is to decrease the electricity demand for the same service. The best energy is the one that is not used. Energy efficiency enhancement is an important issue which requires intervention from governments. Since Europe grant importance to reducing greenhouse gas emission, government intervention will also be required in this area.

Ectricicity from renewable sources

On 23 October the 50% of the electricity consumed in Spain came from renewable sources. This is the first time that happened in the history of Spain. ” With this reality, Miguel Sebastián, Minister of Industry, Commerce and Tourism last week showed how green energy is gaining ground. Typically, green energy installed at home (wind, photovoltaic and solar thermal power …) represents about 25% of domestic demand.

The IPCC (International Panel on Climate Change), a panel of 2,500 top scientists agreed that “a change discernible human influence on global climate and can be detected among the many natural climate variables. According to the panel, the Earth’s surface temperature has risen approximately 0.6 ° C in the last century. Emissions of carbon dioxide from fuel combustion, have increased to 6.25 billion tons in 1996, a new record. In addition, 1996 was one of the five warmest years on record there (since 1866). Furthermore it is estimated that extreme weather-related damage reached 60 billion U.S. $ in 1996, another new record (GCCIP).

Electrical safety at work

Electricity kills and injures people. Around 1000 electrical accidents at work are reported to HSE each year and about 25 people die of their injuries.
Many deaths and injuries arise from:

use of poorly maintained electrical equipment;

work near overhead power lines;

contact with underground power cables during excavation work;

mains electricity supplies (230 volt);

use of unsuitable electrical equipment in explosive areas such as car paint spraying booths;

Fires started by poor electrical installations and faulty electrical appliances cause many additional deaths and injuries.

-Electricity and environment-

The generation of electric energy produces more pollution than any other industry.The industry is responsable for:

-63% of sulfur dioxide emissions that contribute to acid rain.

-22% of some quimical emissions that contribute to urban pollution.

-39% of carbon emissions that contribute to global climate change.

-33% of mercury emissions that is si bad to our health.

Nowadays we are demanding more electricity because we use a lot computer and communication systems.We need to descreasing the damage and obtaining electricity from the cleanes sources available.

Generating technologies are coal,natural gas,wind,etc…that produces electric power. All forms of electricity generation have some level of environmental impact.Most of the electricity is generated from fossil fuels,such as coal,natural gas and oil.

Nuclear energy is a energy that contribute a lot with the pollution because the construction of nuclear plants destroy natural habitat for animals and plants,or contaminate some lands with toxic products.The fission of uranium atoms is dangerous,this uranium process generates radioactive waste.

All variety of fuels used to generate electricity have some impact on the environment.Fossil fuels generate air pollution and nuclear power generates radioactive waste that isn´t good for our health.

When you save energy,you not only save money, you also reduce the demand for such fossil fuels as coal,oil,and natural gas.Less burning of fossil fuels also means lower emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) the primary contributor to global warming and the other pollutants.We must reduces our energy use for us.

Electricity and enviroment: pollution

One of the most used ways for get electricity are heat power stations. These stations are a really big problem for the enviroment, because its method for get the energy is burning coal. In that process is produced a lot of smoke, that goes up to the atmosphere.

The smoke contains CO2, that destroys the ozone layer. The ozone protects the Earth of the solar radiations. If the layer continues disapearing, the planet will get in heat, and the poles will melt. Then, the oceans will grow up, and a great part of the continents  will be inundated.

The smoke also contains substances that are mixed with the water of the clouds. This causes the acid rain, that corrodes the buildings and the plants.

Electricity & Environment.

The generation of electric power produces more pollution than any other single industry in the United States. 63% of sulfur dioxide emissions that contribute to acid rain 22% of NOx emissions that contribute to urban smog 39% of carbon emissions that contribute to global climate change

33% of mercury emissions that pose significant health risks

Among the other major environmental issues linked to electricity are water impacts, generation of wastes, and the disruption of land uses.

Electricity is also playing an increasingly important role in our personal lives and in the economy that feeds us. Electricity powered computer and communication systems are more and more important parts our lives and our economy. Because we are demanding more electricity service we must avoid increasing the damage to our environment by using electricity efficiently and by obtaining electricity from the cleanest sources available.

Using energy more efficiently through more efficient end-uses or through more efficient generation, such as combined heat and power, reduces the amount of fuel required to produce a unit of energy output and reduces the corresponding emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases. Electricity from renewable resources such as solar, geothermal, and wind technologies generally does not contribute to climate change or local air pollution since no fuels are combusted in these processes. It is in our hands.

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