Seminario Regional de la Familia Profesional de Sanidad en Asturias

Falsas memorias

Publicado por IGNACIO ALVAREZ FERNANDEZ el 21 Marzo 2011

El psicólogo cognitivo Sir Francis Barlett (1886-1969) fue el primero que se interesó por el estudio de las distorsiones que se producen en la memoria de una historia, cuando se pide que se recuerde después de distintos períodos de tiempo. Uno de los métodos utilizados por Barlett en sus estudios sobre memoria en ambientes naturales consistía en leer a los participantes una narración y comprobar más tarde cómo recuerdan esa historia después de distintos retrasos entre el período de lectura y la fase de recuperación.

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Barlett observó que los participantes inventaban ciertos detalles que no estaban en la historia original. Estas distorsiones creadas por los participantes tenían como la finalidad hacer compatibles sus recuerdos de la historia con sus esquemas mentales.

A través del estudio de las distorsiones Barlett llegó a la conclusión de la naturaleza constructiva de la memoria. Los recuerdos no eran simples copias de los eventos, sino que dependían de los esquemas de las personas y en estos influirían las expectativas y las experiencias de las mismas.

Posteriormente, desde los años 90 a través de diferentes estudios psicólogos cognitivos y neuropsicólogos han puesto de manifiesto que la memoria no supone una reproducción exacta y literal de los hechos ocurridos en el pasado, sino que depende de procesos constructivos que producen errores, distorsiones e ilusiones. Desde el punto de vista neuropsicológico se pone de manifiesto que hay dos regiones cerebrales importantes en la memoria constructiva: el área temporal media incluida la zona del hipocampo y la corteza prefrontal (Schacter, Norman y Koutstaal, 1988).

Un hecho que llama la atención de estos estudios es que la personas mayores tienden a producir más falsas memorias que los jóvenes (Kensinger y Schacter, 1999)

Ignacio Álvarez Fernández

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